From the initial pronouncement by the GP that a girl is pregnant to the standard scans and antenatal process pregnant women are required to take part in, pregnancy continues to be redefined as being a potential risky process needing medical security. Explain this statement using sociological concepts including medicalization and consider the advantages and drawbacks of this method of pregnancy.
The medicalization of pregnancy and childbirth has changed by something that was once the most natural process into an extremely risky process, how could this and what does the term medicalization truly mean once applied to the pregnancy procedure? This next assignment will discuss the definition of medicalization, medical sociable control and how it pertains to the risk of being pregnant and labor. It will check out the history of pregnancy types of procedures and talk about the current techniques of being pregnant from the first pronouncement towards the expectations of the pregnant female throughout the pregnancy term. The assignment will also discuss the sociological concepts and hypotheses, including the pros and cons of the medicalization of being pregnant.
There are many meanings of medicalization but according to Conrad (1992) " medicalization identifies a process by which nonmedical concerns become defined and cared for as medical problems, usually in terms of ailments or disorders” – pregnant state and labor is a excellent example of this kind of definition. Along with medicalization came medical social control and Conrad (1979) says there are four main types of medical social control, these are: medical ideology, medical collaboration, medical technology and medical monitoring. Whilst the risks of pregnancy and giving birth may fall under all four of such types of social control, the main control would be medical surveillance along with medical technology. (Conrad: 1992)
The most important modify within motherhood and labor is the changeover from the exclusive sphere (giving birth in home) towards the public world of the clinic. (Symonds & Hunt: 1996) Initially, midwives were un-qualified women whose experience was based solely on their own giving birth and what they had learned from other females. Perceptions of midwives different from being old, drunken, unclean women to conscientious, clean kept and caring women. (Kent: 2000) According to wealth, girls in the nineteenth century will encounter different types of midwives. For people who were poor, lay midwives or handywomen would be present at the birth however , often these classes of women will receive their particular treatment in hospitals high was no fee for treatment yet meant obstetricians were liberal to carry out remedies or operations enabling them to develop their own skills and knowledge (Kent: 2000) Middle section class girls would get more expensive amounts (Kent: 2000)
According to Leap and Hunter (1993) during the late nineteenth century a group of women set up a campaign to allow the training and practice of midwives which in turn led to the 1902 Midwives Act. Prior to the introduction on this Act, eight attempts to upgrade the role of midwife experienced failed. The development of the take action meant that it had been illegal for any untrained person to attend a birth besides if advised by a doctor and it was a lawful responsibility for any midwife to attend. (Kent: 2000) Hospital births began to enhance prior to the Ww2 and the introduction of the National Health Assistance in 1946 saw a significant increase in expectant mothers beds that was free to every. (Kent: 2000) Feminist's theory of the medicalization of having a baby defined the procedure as an' expression of patriarchal power' and feminists such as Donnison and Oakley would argue that this meant that women had been now subjected to male electrical power. Oakley specifically sees the move of childbirth right into a male area as slowly destroying women of autonomy and losing control of their own bodies (Symonds & Hunt: 1996)...
Bibliography: Babycentre, LLc ( 2013) Giving birth in hospital, available [online] at: http://babycentre.co.uk/a1046223/giving-birth-in-hospital (accessed: 13/2/2013)
Cahill, H (2000) Male appropriation and medicalization of childbirth: an historical research
Conrad, G (1992) Medicalization and cultural control, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 18, pp. 209-232
Gelis, T (1991) History of childbirth, Polity Press: Cambridge
Hunt, S i9000 (2005) The life course: a sociological introduction, Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire
Hunt, S & Symonds, A (1995) The social that means of midwifery, Macmillan Press Ltd: Birmingham
Kent, J (2000) Social perspectives on being pregnant and having a baby for midwives, nurses plus the caring vocations, Open University or college Press: Berkshire
Kirkham, Meters (ed) (2004) Informed choice in maternal, Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire
National Childbirth Trust (2012) NCT: the Britian's largest charitable organization for patients, available [online] at http://www.nct.org.uk/about-nct/our-history (accessed: 16/2/2013)
National Childbirth Trust (2008) NCT Seance: Home Birth,
Oakley sunglasses, A (1992) Social support and motherhood: the natural good a research task, Blackwell Publishers: Oxford
Oakley sunglasses, A (1993) Essays about women, treatments and overall health, Edinburgh University or college Press: Edinburgh
Symonds, A & Hunt, S (1996) The midwife and culture: perspectives, plans and practice, Macmillan Press Ltd: Greater london.
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